As in many other developing countries, in Rwanda poultry farming is a very important component of livelihoods, especially in rural areas. However, poultry farming does not receive the attention it deserves and requires, probably because of a lack of understanding about the role that poultry plays in poor households. The major objective of this study was to analyse poultry eggs production and marketing in Rwanda. A case of Musanze district. The results indicated that the majority of respondents sell poultry eggs at local market followed by those who sell at national market. The result of the regression analysis showed that water availability, space reserved to poultry, educational level, experience, and veterinary services were significant at P ≤ 0.01 level to influence poultry eggs production and marketing. Money received from selling poultry production usually improve household to solve different need through Source of household food, Increased income, House utensil, School fees, Clothes of household members, life insurance, Malnutrition control, Personal expenses, Friendship, House rehabilitation, and other respectively. The results also showed that factors facing poultry farmers in their production and market in this study were at first place diseases, land tenure, high cost of adequate feeds etc., as the most superior role of poultry is provision of eggs, meat as a source of money and good nutrition. Therefore, policy makers should elaborate the manner that improve and increase poultry production in both quality and quantity for long the run to reduce poverty, end hunger, and achieve food security through sustainable agriculture and livestock production and productivity.