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International Journal of Agricultural and Applied Sciences, December 2023, 4(2): 102-112


ISSN: 2582-8053


Research Article


Pig farming profitability and constraints in smallholder households in Rwanda: a case study of Musanze district.


Gaspard Ntabakirabose1, Félicien Ndaruhutse2, Jean Pierre Mpatswenumugabo3 and Marie Jose Dusengimana4

1Department of Research, Forest Protection Programme, Rwanda Forestry Authority, MoE, Huye, Kigali-Rwanda.

2 Department of Impact Product and Brand, One Acre Fund, Kigali-Rwanda

3College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Kigali-Rwanda.

4Department of Biology, Ministry of Education, Kigali-Rwanda

*Corresponding author e-mail: gmutago@gmail.com

(Received: 19/08/2023; Revised: 19/10/2023; Accepted: 15/11/2023; Published: 20/12/2023)



The increasing human population risks food insecurity especially food of animal origin. Pig plays an important role in household income in all production. The main aim of this study was to analyze the pig farming profitability and constraints in smallholder households in Rwanda. A multistage sampling technique was employed for the success of the research. The study was carried out in five sectors of Musnze district. A purposive sampling technique was used to select Musanze district and five sectors. However, a random sampling method was used to have a sample size of 120 pig farmers’ respondents. The cost and returns associated with pig farming production were carried out to determine the profitability of pig production while a stochastic frontier production function was used to determine factors influencing pig farming in small householders using STATA. The findings indicated that men are the majority of the respondents in pig farming production in the study area.  The findings of the regression analysis indicated that five factors namely education level, market availability, off-farm generation, feed availability, and access to veterinary services were positive, and statistically significant at P ≤ 0.01 level of probability and influenced pig farming in the study area. The findings also indicated that the Total Revenue (TR), Total Cost (TC), Gross Margin (GM), and Net Farm Income (NFI) were statistically significant at (p < 0.01). The research findings indicated that pig farming is a profitable business in the study area.  The result of regression analysis also indicated that the three factors namely income generation, employment opportunities, and new job creation had positive and statistically significant impacts on pig farming in the study area at P ≤ 0.01 level of probability.  The findings of this study revealed that the most common constraints for pig farming in smallholder households were the high cost of feeds, inadequate initial capital, feeds sacristy and quality, lack of conservation facilities, pests, and diseases outbreaks, high cost of piglets, lack of farming information, and poor housing.  Despite the constraints indicated by different respondents in the study area. Pig farming is an economically profitable business in the study area and it is capable of creating new jobs, enhancing employment opportunities, generating income, and clearly improving the standard livelihood of farmers. Based on the findings of the study, it has been recommended to promote interventions that can help provide initial start-up capital for farmers or marketing groups to help kick-start their farming operations; and to train and equip pig farmers and veterinaries in new technologies and innovations. Promote the analysis of profitability, opportunities, and constraints along the pig value chain as well as to support and improve the underlying business progress or stunting well as to make a good decision.

Keywords: Pig Farming, Profitability, Smallholder, Households.