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International Journal of Agricultural and Applied Sciences, December 2023, 4(2): 135-141


ISSN: 2582-8053


Review Article


Impact of climate change on ecology and biodiversity of Africa- a review

Sai Ram Pattnaik

Aquatic Science and Toxicology, Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author e-mail: srp1973@gmail.com, b_sairampatnaik@yahoo.co.in

(Received: 15/07/2023; Revised: 18/11/2023; Accepted: 27/12/2023; Published: 30/12/2023)



The most diverse among all the eco-biosphere entities is the aquatic ecosystem. With their dynamic biodiversity, energy cycles, prey-predator interactions and seasonal patterns aquatic ecosystems are unique in the nature. They are the most influenced of all the others due to their gradual sensitivity by a small change in the climatic condition. The sensitivity can be linked with their response towards temperature and light influencing several abiotic parameters including water, rainfall, pH, dissolved oxygen. The behavior and ecology of biotic components largely depend upon these abiotic parameters; a slight change in which can alter the community dynamics, species composition and diversity of the entire system. Compared to natural causes of climate change, anthropogenic activities are more influential and long standing. Excess use of fossil fuels, use of plastic, confluence of industrial gases and effluents, deforestation are few such examples for the detioriating situation. Both lentic, and lotic among fresh water, the marine with all its components, the estuarine diversity and distribution of species are facing challenges to cope up large-scale stress due to convergence of landmass, destruction of forests including mangroves, over usage of pesticides and fertilizers, exploitation of aquatic products including fish and corals. Not only the aquatic ecology and species in but also the human population and the community which largely depends upon them, disturbed leading to poverty, unemployment, population displacement and conflicts for water and cultivation land. Africa with all its floral and faunal biodiversity, extended lakes with vivid climatic zones is not away from the impacts of climate change. Africa is facing many challenges despite all efforts although a less-contributor of greenhouse gases. To understand all these aspects at the global level especially in Africa, this review paper is prepared accumulating from various sources to apprehend the causes, dimensions and challenges faced by various aquatic ecosystems because of climate change.

Keywords: Africa, Aquaculture, Aquatic, Climate change, Fish, Fisheries, Impact.